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In this new episode of the "Beginner Korean Course" series (which all goes in order), you'll learn about important terms for referring to the members of your family.
You'll also learn some terms for referring to the members of someone else's family.
The post Billy Go’s Beginner Korean Course | #35: Family Tree appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.
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Hello Again Everyone!!
Songgwangsa Temple, which means “Spreading Pine Temple,” in English, is situated on the western slopes of Mt. Jogyesan (884 m), in Jogyesan Provincial Park. Songgwangsa Temple was first built in the waning years of the Silla Dynasty (57 B.C. to 935 A.D.) in the 10th century by the monk Hyerin-seonsa. Hyerin-seonsa also built a neighbouring hermitage and lived there, as well. At this time, there were between thirty to forty monks that lived at the temple. However, since so little is known about the founding of Songgwangsa Temple, and Hyerin in particular, it’s believed by some scholars that Hyerin might have been invented.
Songgwangsa Temple then fell into disrepair and disuse for about fifty years until Bojo-guksa (1158-1210), also known by his ordination name of Jinul, rebuilt the temple over a nine year period ending in 1190. Originally, the Songgwangsa Temple was called Gilsangsa Temple, and it was situated on Mt. Songgwangsan (now Mt. Jogyesan to honour Jinul by the royal decree of King Huijong of Goryeo upon Jinul’s death in 1210). Jinul built Songgwangsa Temple to help further the establishment of a new Korean Seon movement that would incorporate Samadhi (meditation) with Prajna (wisdom/understanding). He called this new school of thought Jeonghyesa, or “정혜사,” in Korean. The goal of this movement, as set forth by Jinul, was to establish a community of monks that centred on discipline and pure-mindedness in the mountains. This goal was completed with the founding of Songgwangsa Temple, which taught a comprehensive approach to Buddhism through meditation (Seon), doctrines (Gyo), chanting, and lectures, and it would be the start to the Jogye-jong Order, as well.
Three times Songgwangsa Temple has been devastated by calamities. First, during the Imjin War (1592-98); the second during the great fire of 1842; and the third during the Korean War (1950-53). In total, Songgwangsa Temple has undergone eight large scale renovations and rebuilds with the most recent being in 1988. These renovations involved fourteen buildings and even the main hall itself.
Songwangsa Temple is also also one of the Three Jewel Temples of Korea, or “Sambosachal” (삼보사찰) in Korean. Songgwangsa Temple represents Seungga (승가), or the Buddhist Community, in English. The other two temples comprising the Three Jewel Temples are Tongdosa Temple (The Buddha) and Haeinsa Temple (The Dharma). In 1969, Songwangsa Temple was reorganized as a monastic centre for all sects of Mahayana Buddhism. In the process, it was also made an international meditation centre.
In addition to producing sixteen national preceptors (Guksa), Songgwangsa Temple is also home to three National Treasures, an astonishing sixteen (what a coincidence) Korean Treasures, a Historic Site, a Scenic Site, a Natural Monument, and a pair of National Registered Cultural Heritage Sites. The National Treasures include the Portable Shrine of the Wooden Buddha Triad (N.T. #42) and the Buddhist Painting of Songgwangsa Temple, Suncheon (Illustration of the Avatamsaka Sutra) (N.T. #314).
You first approach the temple up a long winding path that travels through a beautiful forest of pine trees. This walk also skirts the Sinpyeong stream. You’ll pass over a stunning wooden bridge and an artificial pond that is typically cloaked in colourful paper lanterns during Buddha’s birthday. You’ll finally be nearing the main temple courtyard at Songgwangsa Temple when you come across a Budo-won (Stupa Garden).
Just to the left of the Jogyemun Gate, which is also more commonly known as the Iljumun Gate, or the “One Pillar Gate,” in English, is the most picturesque part of Songgwangsa Temple. Arguably, it’s the most picturesque and recognizable entrance next to Bulguksa Temple in all of Korea. Protruding out from the temple walls, and hovering over top of the Sinpyeong stream, is the highly recognizable Uhwa-gak Pavilion that spans the width of the stream and gains you admittance to the main temple courtyard. The tranquil nature of the stream, and the mirror-like surface that reflects up at the dragon-based bridge is really second to none and makes for a sensational photo-op.
Having passed over the Uhwa-gak, which acts as a bridge to the rest of the temple, you’ll make your way past the Sacheonwangmun Gate that houses the Four Heavenly Kings inside. These four kings make for quite the welcoming committee to Songgwangsa Temple. The Four Heavenly Kings were made of clay and recast in 1628 after being destroyed during the Imjin War. The collection of the Four Heavenly Kings at Songgwangsa Temple are Korean Treasure #1467. It’s only after circumnavigating the Jonggo-ru Pavilion, or the temple’s bell pavilion, in English, that you finally enter the expansive main temple courtyard at Songgwangsa Temple.
Straight ahead is the beautiful Daeungbo-jeon Hall that was reconstructed in 1988. The former Daeungbo-jeon Hall had been destroyed by fire in 1951. This massive main hall is beautifully packed with Buddhist artistry both inside and out. And the wooden latticework that adorns the front doors to the hall are masterful. As for the murals that adorn the exterior walls, they are Buddhist motif murals with one dedicated to Wonhyo-daesa’s enlightenment. As for the interior of this hall, and resting on the main altar, you’ll find Birojana-bul (The Buddha of Cosmic Energy) sitting in the centre of seven golden statues. This statue is joined on its immediate sides by Munsu-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Wisdom) and Bohyeon-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Power). To the right of this triad is Mireuk-bul (The Future Buddha) and Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion). And to the left sits Yeondeung-bul (The Past Buddha) and Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife).
The shrine hall buildings to the right of the main hall, and open to the public, are the Jijang-jeon Hall, the Yeongsan-jeon Hall, and the Yaksa-jeon Hall. Both the Yaksa-jeon Hall and the Yeongsan-jeon Hall are extremely small in size. The Yaksa-jeon Hall is dedicated to Yaksayeorae-bul (The Medicine Buddha, and the Buddha of the Eastern Paradise), and not only is it the smallest shrine hall in Korea, and it was also built during the mid 17th century, but it’s also Korean Treasure #302. The Yeongsan-jeon Hall, or “Vulture Peak Hall,” in English, houses the Palsang-do (The Eight Scenes from the Buddha’s Life) murals. It was first built in 1639, and it’s Korean Treasure #303. As for the wide and cavernous Jijang-jeon Hall, it houses a green-haired incarnation of a seated Jijang-bosal, as well as the Shiwang (The Ten Kings of the Underworld).
As for the buildings to the left of the main hall, there’s the beautiful Seungbo-jeon Hall (Hall of 1,250 Buddhist Priests), which is the very embodiment of the “Seungga” nature of Songgwangsa Temple. The exterior walls to this hall are beautifully adorned with masterful Shimu-do, Ox-Herding, murals. Inside the hall, you’ll find row-upon-row of smaller sized golden monk statues. As for the main altar, you’ll find Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha). He’s joined by his ten great/principal disciples, or “Daejaeja,” (대제자) in Korean, and the 16 Nahan (The Historical Disciples of the Buddha), as well as 1,250 golden priests.
Continuing in this part of the temple, you’ll find the Gwaneum-jeon Hall. Originally, the hall was built in 1903, and it was called a Seongsu-jeon Hall. It was used as an imperial prayer hall at this time. Emperor Gojong, also in 1903, and to commemorate his 51st birthday, gave a plaque to adorn the hall. In 1957, the former Gwaneun-jeon Hall was dismantled and the statue of Gwanseeum-bosal was moved to its current location and the name of the shrine hall changed from Seongsu-jeon Hall to the Gwaneum-jeon Hall. The statue of Gwanseeum-bosal was sculpted in 1662 by the renowned monk sculptors, Hyehui and Geummun. It’s also Korean Treasure #1660. This hall is beautifully surrounded on all sides by lush gardens. Sitting all alone inside this hall is a statue of Gwanseeum-bosal. The statue is backed by the paintings of the sun and the moon, which are meant to symbolize Emperor Gwangmu (r.1897-1907, and as King Gojong, King of Joseon from 1864-1897) and Empress Myeongseong (1851-95). There are also civil vassals bowing towards the altar. Another unique feature of the Gwaneum-jeon Hall at Songgwangsa Temple is that there are landscapes and floral paintings both inside and outside of this shrine hall.
To the rear of the Gwaneum-jeon Hall, and up a set of steep stairs, you’ll find the Bojo-guksa Gamno-tap. The stupa houses the earthly remains of the founder of both Songgwangsa Temple and the Jogye-jong Order. The stupa was completed three years after Bojo-guksa’s death in 1213. It’s also in this part of the temple grounds that you find the Guksa-jeon Hall, which is National Treasure #56. This shrine hall was originally a meditation center, but it was later turned into a shrine hall to house the official sixteen portraits of the national preceptors (Guksa). The portraits themselves are Korean Treasure #1043. The shrine hall was originally built in 1369, and it’s undergone two major renovations.
Admission to the temple is 3,000 won (cash only).
HOW TO GET THERE: From the city of Suncheon, Jeollanam-do, you’ll need to find city Bus #111. You can do that or find your way to the Intercity Bus Terminal in Suncheon. From there, board a bus bound for Songgwangsa Temple. Both are roughly 4,000 won.
OVERALL RATING: 9.5/10. Songgwangsa Temple is beautifully situated in the mountain folds of Mt. Jogyesan. With its long and rich history, Songgwangsa Temple is home to a countless amount of treasures. It has one of the most iconic entryways in Korea with the tranquil Sinpyeong stream flowing underneath the Uhwa Pavilion. And when you add into the mix the Bojo-guksa Gamno-tap, the massive Daeungbo-jeon Hall, the intriguing Seungbo-jeon Hall, and the colourful and historic Gwaneun-jeon Hall, there will be a little of something for everyone during their visit to Songgwangsa Temple in Suncheon, Jeollanam-do.The Budo-won near the entry of the main temple grounds. The stately Iljumun Gate. One of the historic Four Heavenly Kings. The Daeungbo-jeon Hall. Wonhyo-daesa’s enlightenment. Inside the Daeungbo-jeon main hall. The pathway and gate that lead up to the Guksa-jeon Hall. Inside the highly unique Seungbo-jeon Hall. Inside the Gwaneum-jeon Hall.
For those of you who missed it, and those of you who'd like to review what they learned during the live Korean class...
Here's a full review of the grammar form ~는 데 - the one with the space between it.
Note that ~는 데 is different than ~는데 or other similar looking forms (it's also not 데 as in 장소).
Hello Again Everyone!!
Hwaeomsa Temple, which is located in Gurye, Jeollanam-do, is on the very south-western edge of the famed Jirisan National Park. Hwaeomsa Temple means “Flower Garland Temple,” in English. Because of this name, it is directly linked to Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion). In Korean, the Flower Garland Sutra is known as “Hwaeom Gyeong – 화엄경.” And in Sanskrit, the sutra is known as the “Avataṃsaka Sūtra.”
The temple was first founded in 544 A.D. by the monk Yeongi-josa, who might have come from India. The temple was then later expanded by Jajang-yulsa (590-648 A.D.) in 643 A.D. And during the reign of King Munmu of Silla (r.661-681 A.D.), the famous monk, Uisang-daesa (625-702 A.D.) inscribed eighty replicas of the Flower Garland Sutra on stone tablets at Hwaeomsa Temple. Later, in 875 A.D., another famous monk, Doseon-guksa (827-898 A.D.) expanded the temple, once more.
Throughout the years, Hwaeomsa Temple has undergone numerous renovations. And in 1593, most of the temple shrine halls at Hwaeomsa Temple were completely destroyed by fire by the invading Japanese during the Imjin War (1592-98). Remarkably, the temple was able to preserve pieces of Uisang-daesa’s stone tablets inscribed with the Flower Garland Sutra on them. They’re known as Seokgyeong, or “Stone Sutra,” in English. Even though they were shattered by the Japanese, some 9,000 fragments still remain. These fragmentary artifacts, that were originally written on light blue stone, changed into a gray-brown colour caused by the fires that engulfed the temple. Presently, these fragments are Korean Treasure #1040.
After the war, and between 1630-1636, Hwaeomsa Temple, and some of the buildings that now take up residence on the temple grounds, were rebuilt. And in 1701, during the long reign of King Sukjong of Joseon (r.1674-1720), the reconstruction of Hwaeomsa Temple was completed. The temple shrine hall buildings that were completed at this time were the Daeung-jeon Hall, the famed Gakhwang-jeon Hall, the Myeongbu-jeon Hall, the Wontong-jeon Hall, and the Yeongsan-jeon Hall. Also, three gates, the Geumgangmun Gate, the Cheonwangmun Gate, and the Boje-ru Pavilion were built at this time, as well.
Hwaeomsa Temple is home to an astonishing four National Treasures, eight Korean Treasures, one Historic Site, one Scenic Site, and two Natural Monuments. Hwaeomsa Temple is also a host to the very popular Temple Stay program.
You first approach Hwaeomsa Temple up a long valley, which neighbours the stunning Masan River. When you finally do arrive at the temple grounds, you’ll first be welcomed by the two-pillared Iljumun Gate. Stepping through this stately One Pillar Gate, you’ll next be greeted by the Geumgangmun Gate (The Diamond Gate) and the Sacheonwangmun Gate (The Four Heavenly Kings Gate). Both are wonderful examples of the splendour of these Korean entry gates.
After skirting the Boje-ru Pavilion to your right, you’ll finally enter the main temple courtyard. To the far left stands the temple’s bell pavilion, the “Jong-gak,” in Korean. The bell pavilion is protected by four fierce lions that stand on each of the four corners of the pavilion. To the left, the Jong-gak is joined by the Yeongsan-jeon Hall that houses eight stunning murals, the Palsang-do, which are dedicated to the Buddha, Seokgamoni-bul’s, life. In this courtyard, but before mounting the stairs that lead up to the historic Daeung-jeon Hall, are a pair of ancient pagodas: Seo-ocheung Pagoda (West Five-Story Stone Pagoda) and the Dong-ocheung (West Five-Story Stone Pagoda). Both are believed to date back to the 9th century. The East Five-Story Stone Pagoda is Korean Treasure #132, while the West Five-Story Stone Pagoda is Korean Treasure #133. Both are wonderful examples of Silla-designed pagodas with beautiful lines and decorative guardians.
Finally climbing the stairs to the upper temple courtyard, you’ll come face-to-face with the Daeung-jeon Hall. The main hall is Korean Treasure #299. The weathered Daeung-jeon Hall is believed to date back to 1630 when it was built by the monk Byeogam. The Daeung-jeon Hall houses a large triad of statues on the main altar centred by Birojana-bul (The Buddha of Cosmic Energy). This statue is joined on either side by Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha) and Rocana-bul (The Perfect Body Buddha). According to temple records from 1697, the wooden statues were jointly carved in 1636 by several famous sculptor monks that were active in the region during the early to mid part of the 17th century. They are Korean Treasure #1548. These three statues are meant to form the different incarnations of the Buddha. And they are backed by a beautiful mural of the triad that’s Korean Treasure #1363. The interior of the hall, including the canopy that hangs above the triad of statues on the main altar, is highly elaborate and colourful in design and artistry.
To the right of the Daeung-jeon Hall is the Myeongbu-jeon Hall, which houses a green-haired statue of Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife). Jijang-bosal is joined by ten seated statues of the Shiwang, or the “Ten Kings of the Underworld,” in English. To the left of the Daeung-jeon Hall, and between the massive Gakhwang-jeon Hall, are the Wontong-jeon Hall and the Nahan-jeon Hall. The Wontong-jeon Hall houses a statue of Gwanseeum-bosal, while the Nahan-jeon Hall houses both paintings and statues dedicated to the Nahan (The Historical Disciples of the Buddha). And the final shrine hall of the triad of temple buildings in this part of the temple is the Samseong-gak Hall. Housed inside this shaman shrine hall is a collection of shaman murals dedicated to Chilseong (The Seven Stars), Dokseong (The Lonely Saint), and Sanshin (The Mountain Spirit).
But it’s out in front of the Wontong-jeon Hall, and the Lion Pagoda at the Wontong-jeon Hall, that’s the most intriguing. The Lion Pagoda is Korean Treasure #300, and it’s believed to have been built sometime during the 9th century. This pagoda is typically called a “Noju,” in Korean, or a “Stone Pillar,” in English. The exact meaning and purpose aren’t precisely known, but it’s presumed to have been used either as a reliquary for sari (crystallized remains) or for holding memorial services around it. As for its design, it has four lions at each direction similar to the one up the hill at Hwaeomsa Temple, as well as the brick pagoda at Bunhwangsa Temple in Gyeongju. On the heads of the four lions rests a square stone chamber where it’s presumed that the sari were housed. And each of the lions sits upon a lotus pedestal. It’s a rather remarkable example of Buddhist artistic achievement using stone.
To the left of this collection of shrine halls and the Lion Pagoda is the Gakhwang-jeon Hall. This hall is National Treasure #67. This massive hall was rebuilt to replace the hall that was destroyed by the Japanese during the Imjin War. It was completely rebuilt in 1702, and the name of the shrine hall, Gakhwang-jeon Hall, means “Enlightened Emperor Hall,” in English. The stone base that supports the two-story structure is presumed to date back to Later Silla (676-935 A.D.). Inside this hall are three massive Buddha statues and four accompanying Bodhisattvas.
Out in front of the Gakhwang-jeon Hall is the equally massive 6.4 metre tall stone lantern, or “Seokdeung,” in Korean. The stone lantern is believed to date back to Later Silla (676-935 A.D.) to between 860-873 A.D. The lantern is National Treasure #12. Up until 1960, it was the largest of its kind. The Seokdeung isn’t meant to be lit. Instead, the lantern is meant to symbolize the spiritual light of the Buddha.
The other major highlight to Hwaeomsa Temple, among a whole host of them, and to the left of the Gakhwang-jeon Hall, is up a uneven set of 108 stairs on the hillside. The Sa-saja Samcheung, or “The Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda,” in English, is one of the most original pagodas in Korea alongside Dabo-tap Pagoda at Bulguksa Temple. The pagoda is National Treasure #35, and it’s packed with symbolic meaning. The three-story pagoda rests on top of the first story of the main body. Featured on this first story are doors in the four directions with the Four Heavenly Kings protecting two of these doors in pairs. At the base of the pagoda are four lions which are meant to represent the four human emotions of anger, joy, sorrow, and love. At the centre of the five metre tall pagoda is a stone monk. And out in front of the pagoda, kneeling out of respect, sits another stone figure underneath an equally unique lantern on pillars. It’s believed that the monk that stands with hands clasped together inside the base of the Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda is the mother of the founding monk, Yeongi, while the statue of the monk underneath the stone lantern in front of the pagoda is meant to represent Yeongi himself. Take your time at this pagoda because there are only a handful of pagodas like this that hold such artistic mastery and originality.
Admission to the temple is 4,000 won for adults.
HOW TO GET THERE: From the Gurye Intercity Bus Terminal, you’ll need to take a bus bound for Hwaeomsa Temple. This bus leaves every ten to twenty minutes, and the first bus departs at 8 a.m. The final bus leaves Hwaeomsa Temple at 8:10 p.m. From where the bus lets you off, it’s an additional fifteen to twenty minute walk to get to Hwaeomsa Temple.
OVERALL RATING: 10/10. With a combined sixteen National Treasures, Treasures, Scenic Site, Historic Site, and Natural Monuments, it’s no wonder that Hwaeomsa Temple rates a perfect ten out of ten. There’s just so much to love and explore about Hwaeomsa Temple like the massive Gakhwang-jeon Hall, the equally massive stone lantern that’s situated just outside the Gakhwang-jeon Hall, the Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda, and the countless amount of Buddhist artistry. I highly, highly recommend a trip to Hwaeomsa Temple both for its cultural importance, as well as its artistic beauty. It’s an absolute must!The Iljumun Gate at Hwaeomsa Temple. The picturesque Jirisan National Park that surrounds the temple. The Daeung-jeon Hall fronted by the East Five-Story Stone Pagoda A look inside the Daeung-jeon Hall. Korean Treasure #300 backed by the Wontong-jeon Hall. The Gakhwang-jeon Hall and the West Five-Story Stone Pagoda. National Treasure #12. A look inside the cavernous Gakhwang-jeon Hall. The stunning Four Lion Three-Story Stone Pagoda, and National Treasure #35. A closer look at the lions adorning the pagoda.
Hello Again Everyone!!
Just south-west of the famous Beopjusa Temple in Boeun-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do is Sujeongam Hermitage. And like Beopjusa Temple, it’s beautifully situated in Songnisan National Park. Sujeongam Hermitage is one of twelve hermitages that’s located on the Beopjusa Temple grounds.
Sujeongam Hermitage is believed to have been built around the same time as Beopjusa Temple in 553 A.D. by the same monk, Uisin. Unfortunately, very few records remain to tell about the hermitage’s history. However, records do exist stating that the hermitage had shaman shrine halls like the Sanshin-gak (Mountain Spirit Hall), Chilseong-gak (Seven Stars Hall), and Dokseong-gak (Lonely Saint Hall), as well as a Daeseon-bang (Great Meditation Hall) in 1914. The Great Meditation Hall was expanded in 1960. And the Geukrak-jeon Hall, the Josa-jeon Hall, and the monks’ dorms were renovated in 1973.
As you make your way towards Beopjusa Temple, you’ll first come across Sujeongam Hermitage down a beautiful pathway that skirts the neighbouring stream and a Budo-won (stupa cemetery for deceased monks). Finally, you come to the compact hermitage grounds. The first thing to welcome you at the gate are a pair of Geumgang-yeoksa (Vajra Warriors).
Directly to your right, and a bit past the monks’ dorms, is the beautiful Geukrak-jeon Hall at Sujeongam Hermitage. Adorning the exterior walls of the main hall at the hermitage is a beautiful collection of rustic Shimu-do, Ox-Herding murals. As for the interior, and resting on the main altar, is a triad centred by Amita-bul (The Buddha of the Western Paradise). This statue is joined on either side by Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion) and Daesaeji-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Wisdom and Power for Amita-bul). To the right of the main altar triad is a golden stone statue dedicated to Yaksayeorae-bul (The Medicine Buddha, and the Buddha of the Eastern Paradise). The date of the statue is unknown, but it’s still historic in nature. This golden statue is joined to the right by a red-motif Shinjung Taenghwa (Guardian Mural).
But the main highlight to Sujeongam Hermitage hangs, collectively, to the left of the main altar triad. Here there is a collection of older-looking shaman murals. The set consists of a Chilseong (Seven Stars) mural, Dokseong (Lonely Saint) mural, and a Sanshin (Mountain Spirit) mural. Of the set, it’s the Sanshin mural that’s the most original with a folk-style tiger to Sanshin’s left, while embracing a dongja (attendant) to the right. Sanshin appears to be paternally holding tight to the dongja. A definite first for me!
The other temple shrine hall that visitors can explore is the tiny Josa-jeon Hall. Like some other temples and hermitages I’ve come across in Korea, this Josa-jeon Hall has a dual purpose. Not only does it honour former monks that once called Sujeongam Hermitage home, but it also acts as a storage hall. Housed inside the Josa-jeon Hall are three unidentified murals hanging on the main altar.
HOW TO GET THERE: Much like getting to Beopjusa Temple, to get to Sujeongam Hermitage, you’ll first need to take a bus bound for Boeun-gun. From the Boeun-gun Intercity Bus Terminal, you’ll need to take a direct bus to Songnisan National Park. This bus runs every thirty to forty minutes throughout the day. When you arrive at the Songnisan Intercity Bus Terminal, you’ll need to walk about twenty minutes towards Beopjusa Temple/Songnisan Ticket Office. However, a couple minutes before you arrive at Beopjusa Temple, you’ll need to hang a left to find Sujeongam Hermitage.
OVERALL RATING: 5/10. Sujeongam Hermitage is one of the most scenically located hermitages in all of Korea. Sujeongam Hermitage, in combination with Beopjusa Temple and Songnisan National Park, makes for quite an amazing outing. In addition to its location, Sujeongam Hermitage has a beautiful collection of shaman murals inside the main hall, as well as a golden Yaksayeorae-bul statue, too.The cliff ledge to the north of Sujeongam Hermitage. The Geukrak-jeon Hall with the Josa-jeon Hall to the right. One of the Ox-Herding Murals that adorns the Geukrak-jeon Hall. A look around the main hall. The adoring Sanshin (Mountain Spirit). The Seven Stars mural. And the Lonely Saint (Dokseong), as well. The Shinjung Taenghwa. The golden Yaksayeorae-bul.
I'd gotten a lot of requests to make more higher level Korean test questions in this series, so here's one for Advanced Level learners.
If you're preparing for a TOPIK or other Korean test, then this video series is for you. Here's episode 27!
Here is the listening example:
지금 여러분께서 보고 계신 작품은 키캣 작가의 “곰이 소형 동물이었더라면” 이라는 작품입니다. 키캣 작가는 국내보다 해외에서 더 많이 알려진 작가입니다. 작은 조각들을 사실적으로 만들며 작품과 작품 사이에 스토리가 이어지는 것으로 젊은 층에게 특히 인기가 많습니다. 보시다시피 이 작품에는 상대적으로 작은 곰 가족과 큰 고양이 2마리가 함께 있습니다. 곰이 덩치가 작아도 두발로 일어서서 큰 상대를 위협하는 모습이 아주 인상적이지요. 고양이와 곰이 그들보다 큰 생선을 앞에 두고 경쟁하는 모습에서 보는 이에게 웃음을 줍니다. 다음 작품을 감상하기 위해 2층으로 이동하도록 하겠습니다.
What you are all looking at now is a work by the artist Keykat called “If bears were small animals.” Keykat is an artist who is better known outside of the country. She makes small realistic sculptures which tell stories within the pieces, and is especially popular with the younger generations. As you can see, in this work is a relatively small bear family together with two large cats. The bear appearance is very impressive because although its body is small, it stands on two feet and threatens a large opponent. Within the image is the cats and bears competing in front of a fish that’s even larger than they are, which delivers humor to the viewer. In order to appreciate the next work, we’ll move to the 2nd floor.
The post Korean Test Practice with Billy [Ep. 27] – Advanced Korean (Listening Practice) appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.
This lesson continues from the previous, and introduces the particle 의 (which works like an apostrophe S in English).
Also this episode has a special guest. Can you guess who it is?
The post Billy Go’s Beginner Korean Course | #34: The Particle 의 appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.
This video is a continuation to the previous one, which introduced how to ask for favors. Here we'll expand on that concept, and learn how to say "please" to ask for favors.
Again, remember that this series goes in order from the beginning.
The post Billy Go’s Beginner Korean Course | #33: Asking Favors Part 2 appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.
This last Sunday's live stream was for Intermediate and Advanced Level learners.
We covered several ways to say "rather," the most important being the adverb 차라리 and the grammar form ~느니.
But we also covered 오히려, 도리어, ~느니보다, and ~느니만 못하다.
This is a beginner topic, but still important. Both 아니요 and 아니에요 can translate as "No" depending on the sentence. But they have different uses.
So what's the difference between using 아니요 and 아니에요?
The post 아니요 and 아니에요 – What’s the Difference? | Korean FAQ appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.
Hello Again Everyone!!
Guinsa Temple, which means “Salvation of Humanity Temple,” in English is located in the Danyang, Chungcheongbuk-do. Guinsa Temple is situated up a long valley north of the towering Mt. Sobaeksan (1439.6m). The temple was first completed in 1945, when the contemporary founder of the Cheontae-jong Order, Sangwol-wongak, built a small hut from arrowroot vines. During his time here, he received a revelation about the truth of the universe, which is an interpretation of the Lotus Sutra. During the Korean War (1950-53), the temple was destroyed in the fighting. In 1966, Guinsa Temple was renovated and expanded. And in 1967, the Cheontae-jong Order was registered with the Korean government, officially re-establishing the Cheontae-jong school of Buddhist thought.
Cheontae is a descendent of the Chinese Buddhist school Tiantai. Cheontae was introduced a few times to the Korean peninsula from when it was first established in China in 594 A.D. by Master Zhiyi (or 지의, in Korean). Master Yeongwang, a Silla Kingdom monk, studied under Master Zhiyi in China from 581-597 A.D., but later returned to the Korean peninsula to teach the Cheontae teachings. Again in 730 A.D., the Silla monks Peopyung, Ieung, and Sunyeong studied the Cheontae teachings under the Master Monk Chwagye Hyeonrang. Later, they returned to Korea to transmit the Cheontae teachings. However, it wasn’t until the monk Uicheon (1055-1101), in 1086, who re-introduces the Cheontae teachings, that they finally take root. By re-introducing the Cheontae teachings, Uicheon was attempting to ease the tension between the doctrinal (Gyo) and Seon (Zen) schools of Buddhism. However, by 1424, Korean Cheontae Buddhism was absorbed by the Seon school of Buddhism as part of the anti-Buddhist policy during the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910).
An interesting point is to be made about why Cheontae-jong temples differ in their ornateness from the more popular and austere Jogye-jong Order Temples. According to Cheontae doctrine, all sensory experiences of the world are in fact expressions of the Dharma. Therefore, these sensory experiences contain the key to potential enlightenment. That’s why Cheontae-jong Order temples like Guinsa Temple are far more colourful and elaborate than their Jogye-jong Order temple counterparts.
Guinsa Temple is the headquarters of the Cheontae-jong Order in Korea, which governs over 140 temples like Haedong Yonggungsa Temple and Samgwangsa Temple both in Busan. Also, the Cheontae-jong Order has over two million adherents. In total, the temple is home to fifty buildings that include shrine halls, meeting centres, dorms, and administrative offices. The temple is so large that it can house up to 10,000 monks at any given time. Guinsa Temple also hosts the very popular Temple Stay program at its temple.
You first approach the temple up a gradual incline that becomes a bit steeper near the outskirts of the temple grounds. The first structure to greet you is the stately Iljumun Gate, or “One Pillar Gate,” in English. Passing through the Iljumun Gate, you’ll notice a building that stacks up nicely against the slopes of the neighbouring mountain. Another thing to note about Guinsa Temple, and this very first temple building is a great indicator of this, is that unlike traditional temples, Guinsa Temple has multi-floored buildings. Perhaps out of a need to maximize space in the narrow valley fold, but Guinsa Temple doesn’t look like any other temple in Korea with its overstacked and layered appearance.
Next, you’ll approach a fortress-like gate that acts as the Cheonwangmun Gate. Housed on the second floor of this structure are some fierce-looking Four Heavenly Kings. Past this entry gate, and a collection of administrative buildings and dorms, you’ll finally come to the first structure at Guinsa Temple. The first structure is an elephant based three-story stone pagoda with three sari (crystallized remains) of the Buddha. They were brought to the temple from the Jetavana monastery in India.
To the right of this pagoda, and up a flight of stairs, is the temple’s Geukrak-jeon Hall. A beautiful collection of Shimu-do, or “Ox-Herding Murals,” in English, adorn the exterior walls to this hall. As for inside of this rather busy hall, you’ll find a triad of statues resting on the main altar. In the centre sits Amita-bul (The Buddha of the Western Paradise). This statue is joined on either side by Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion) and Daesaeji-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Power and Wisdom for Amita-bul). And just to the right of this hall is the temple’s elevated bell pavilion.
Just to the north of the Geukrak-jeon Hall is the Gwaneum-jeon Hall, which is beautifully painted on the exterior walls with the various incarnations of Gwanseeum-bosal. As for inside this hall, and seated on the main altar, is a jade statue of the Bodhisattva of Compassion. She is backed by a beautiful multi-armed mural of herself. It’s also from the Gwaneum-jeon Hall that you can get some great pictures of the Guinsa Temple grounds.
Just a little further up the mountain, and you’ll come to the massive five-story modern main hall. Inside, you’ll find an equally massive statue of Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha) sitting on the main altar. This statue of the Buddha is backed by a stunning Vulture Peak relief.
And just to the left of the main hall is the Nahan-jeon Hall, which is golden in colour and somewhat Chinese influenced in design. Inside this hall are a masterful collection of Nahan (The Disciples of the Historical Buddha) statues. And to the right of the main hall, and up yet another flight of stairs (trust me, you’ll get your fill of them at this temple) is the crowning Daejosa-jeon Hall, or “The Great Founders Hall,” in English. This golden three-story shrine hall is fronted by a pair of protective Vajra warriors. As for inside this hall, you’ll find sitting on the main altar a golden statue of the First Patriarch of the modern Cheontae-jong Order: Sangwon-wongsa.
HOW TO GET THERE: To get to Guinsa Temple, you’ll first need to get to the Danyang Intercity Bus Terminal. From this terminal, you’ll need to board a bus bound for Guinsa Temple. The first bus for Guinsa Temple leaves at 9:20 a.m., and the last bus leaves at 8:20 p.m. This bus leaves every hour.
OVERALL RATING: 7.5/10. To be honest, I definitely have mixed feelings about Guinsa Temple. While it definitely has a lot of highlights like the elephant based pagoda that contains the sari of the Buddha, the Gwaneum-jeon Hall, the Nahan-jeon Hall, and the Daejosa-jeon Hall, all the buildings at Guinsa Temple are made of concrete (which is a bit of a hang-up for a traditionalist like me). Also, all the buildings at Guinsa Temple are squeezed together in a towering line that blots out the neighbouring mountain. So this temple, at least for me, is a bit of a mixed bag and the overall rating I give this temple reflects that. While great for some, it just wasn’t quite what I was expecting when first visiting Guinsa Temple.The Iljumun Gate at Guinsa Temple. The narrow valley that houses towering temple buildings. An interesting wall design that lines this part of the temple grounds. A look around some of the temple shrine halls at Guinsa Temple. The three-story pagoda that houses some of the Buddha’s remains. The cramped shrine halls that are packed into the narrow valley where Guinsa Temple takes up residence. Inside the Geukrak-jeon Hall. Inside the Gwaneum-jeon Hall with a look at the Bodhisattva of Compassion. One last look over a temple shrine hall at Guinsa Temple.
These days it is tough to find a decent vantage point around any worthwhile place in Korea where you are not shooting through glass. Cities like Busan, offer a few places that are actually designed to give youa clear view of the city and Hwangnyeongsan Mountain is probably one of the best.Getting There
If you don’t have a car, the best way to get up the mountain is to hike up. It can take anywhere from 45 minutes to an hour depending on your pace. I would highly recommend taking a taxi down if you are there for the sunset. This goes especially for the winter season as it tends to get really cold, really fast up on the mountain.
This is where an app like Kakao Taxi can come in handy. It will allow you to call a taxi from your location rather than waiting for a taxi to come up the mountain. Trust me when I say that they don’t want to go up there. However, you will have an easier time getting a taxi using the app.Locations
There are a number of spots along the way that offer views in different locations. The first being the lookout over the Gwangali Bridge. This will be right before the cafe as you go up the mountain. It is indicated only by a wooden platform along the righthand side of the road. So keep your eye peeled as you go up the mountain. Usually there are a number of cars parked there, so it is not too difficult to find.
From here, follow the road all the way around until you get to the parking lot. Use the large antenna as a landmark. That is where you are heading. From the parking lot on your left, you can follow the road up to the buildings or take the hiking trail behind.
There are 2 locations here to choose from. The first being on your immediate left as you come from the parking and reach the building. This gives you more of a view of the city and a lot more of the harbour. However, more people head straight to the big show which is just around the corner.
If you follow the path, keep looking to your right and just follow the groups of people because there is nowhere else really to go up there. You will eventually get the a viewing area.
This place gets super busy during the peak hours around sunset. So, I would recommend getting there a bit early to set up. For these shots, I found a spot up at the front along the railing. I was really hoping that I was not hit by the paraglider that was attempting to take off. It would have made a nice element in the frame but for some reason he failed to lift off.Timing
For this location, I chose to go around sunset. Due to the direction of the observation platform. If you are looking for a sunrise shot, partway up the mountain on the side of the road, there is an area to view the Gwangali Bridge. From there, you can get a decent sunrise shot depending on the time of year and weather conditions.
So for these shots, I wanted the sunset. I felt that with the city in front, then the sunset colors would be a great addition to the image. I also felt that that it would add a touch more interest as well.
It should be noted that this is a peak time for both tourists and photographers alike. Therefore, you should plan to get up there a little early, and wait around a bit. The reason being is that if you get there right at sunset there will not be a place to set up.The Shots
What I wanted to show was the flow of the city around the mountains. Also I wanted to use the mountains as compositional elements that helped direct the eye to the buildings and the colours as well.
This basically takes the photograph away from just a “shot of Busan” to something a bit more artistic in a way. This could be anywhere. Now, this could also be a bad thing as I will explain later. For now, I just wanted to highlight the thought process that went into the shots.
The reason why is could be a bad things is that if you are looking for something that screams “this is Busan! This is Korea” then, this probably is not it. These shots have no real defining feature that tells the viewer where the shot is taken from. Therefor, if the viewer is not familiar with the area then it is hard for them to relate to the picture and harder for them to connect with it.
The bottomline here is that Hwangnyeongsan Mountain is a relatively easy place to get a number of great views of Busan. It is an outdoor location and that is great for shooting at all hours. Just be mindful of the crowds and whether or not you can get down the mountain again if you don’t have your own mode of transportation.
In this lesson you'll start learning how to ask for favors - the next part will continue where this video leaves off.
Remember that this course goes in order, so start from the beginning if this is your first time seeing it.
The post Billy Go’s Beginner Korean Course | #32: Asking Favors Part 1 appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.
In this lesson, we’re going to cover the different jobs in Korean. In other words, you will get a list of the various occupation names in Korean.
This can be very useful when you’re learning the Korean language. For example, when you befriend Koreans or fellow students in your Korean language class, you will likely be asked what your job or dream job is. It’s one of the most common questions you’ll hear when talking with Koreans, so you’ll want to be prepared to answer.
Below is a comprehensive list of some of the most common job titles in Korean. Let’s get to work!Job Titles in Korean
Accountant → 회계사 (hoegyewon)
Actor → 배우 (baeu)
Advertising specialist → 광고 전문가 (gwanggo jeonmunga)
Animal caretaker → 동물 관리인 (dongmul gwalliin)
Architect → 건축가 (geonchukga)
Assistant → 보조 (bojo)
Baker → 제빵사 (jeppangsa)
Barista → 바리스타 (bariseuta)
Bookkeeper → 부기계원 (bugigyewon)
Bus driver → 버스 운전사 (beoseu unjeonsa)
Business(wo)man → 경영사 (gyeongyeongsa)
Butcher → 정육업자 (jeongyugeopja)
Carpenter → 카펜터 (kapenteo)
Cashier → 출남계원 (chullamgyewon)
Chef → 요리사 (yorisa)
Childcare worker → 유악종사자 (yuakjongsaja)
Cleaner → 청소부 (cheongsobu)
Coach → 코치 (kochi)
Construction worker → 건설노동사 (geonseollodongsa)
Cosmetologist → 미용사 (miyongsa)
Counselor → 상담원 (sangdamwon)
Customer service representative → 고객센터 직원 (gogaeksenteo jigwon)
Dental assistant → 치위생사 (chiwisaengsa)
Dentist → 치과 의사 (chigwa uisa)
Director → 감독 (gamdok)
Doctor → 의사 (uisa)
Editor → 편집자 (pyeonjipja)
Electrician → 전기기사 (jeongigisa)
Engineer → 앤지니어 (aenjinieo)
Farmer → 농부 (nongbu)
Financial advisor → 금융 상담원 (geumyung sangdamwon)
Fire fighter → 소방관 (sobanggwan)
Fitness instructor → 운동 강사 (undong gangsa)
Flight attendant → 승무원 (seungmuwon)
Graphic designer → 그래픽 디자이너 (geuraepik dijaineo)
Hairdresser → 미용사 (miyongsa)
Healthcare worker → 의료계 종사자 (uiryogye jongsaja)
Hotel receptionist → 호텔 접수원 (hotel jeopsuwon)
Housewife → 주부 (jubu)
Human resources assistant → 인사조수 (insajosu)
IT specialist → IT 전문가 (IT jeonmunga)
Janitor → 관리인 (gwalliin)
Journalist → 기자 (gija)
Judge → 심판 (simpan)
Kindergarten teacher → 유치원 교사 (yuchiwon gyosa)
Laboratory technologist → 임상병리사 (imsangbyeongnisa)
Lawyer → 변호사 (byeonhosa)
Librarian → 사서 (saseo)
Lifeguard → 인명 구조원 (inmyeong gujowon)
Mailman → 우편집배원 (upyeonjipbaewon)
Maintenance worker → 관리 직원 (gwalli jigwon)
Manager → 매니저 (maenijeo)
Marketing specialist → 마케팅전문가 (maketingjeonmunga)
Mechanic → 정비사 (jeongbisa)
Musician → 음악가 (eumakga)
Nurse → 간호사 (ganhosa)
Office worker → 회사원 (hoesawon)
Painter → 화가 (hwaga)
Paralegal → 준법률가 (junbeomnyulga)
Personal caretaker → 개인간호사 (gaeinganhosa)
Personal trainer → 개인 트레이너 (gaein teureineo)
Pharmacist → 약사 (yaksa)
Photographer → 사진작가 (sajinjakga)
Pilot → 비행사 (bihaengsa)
Plumber → 배관공 (baegwangong)
Police → 경찰관 (gyeongchalgwan)
Post office clerk → 우체국 사무원 (ucheguk samuwon)
Professor → 교수 (gyosu)
Programmer → 프로그래머 (peurogeuraemeo)
Real estate agent → 부동산 중개인 (budongsan junggaein)
School principal → 학교장 (hakgyojang)
Secretary → 비서 (biseo)
Security guard → 경비원 (gyeongbiwon)
Sales person → 판매원 (panmaewon)
Social worker → 사회복지사 (sahoebokjisa)
Soldier → 군인 (gunin)
Stylist → 스타일리스트 (seutailliseuteu)
Taxi driver → 택시 운전사 (taeksi unjeonsa)
Teacher → 선생 (seonsaeng)
Telemarketer → 텔레마케터 (tellemaketeo)
Tour guide → 관광 가이드 (gwangwang gaideu)
Travel agent → 여행사 직원 (yeohaengsa jigwon)
Truck driver → 트럭 운전사 (teureok unjeonsa)
Veterinarian → 수의사 (suuisa)
Waiter → 웨이터 (weiteo)
Writer → 작가 (jakga)Sample Sentences
그쪽의 직업은 뭐예요? (geujjogui jigeobeun mwoyeyo?)
What is your job?
제 직업은 작가예요. (je jigeobeun jakgayeyo.)
My job is as a writer.
저는 회계사예요. (jeoneun hoegyesayeyo.)
I am an accountant.How to Say Job in Korean
You would use the word 직업 (jigeop) for “job” in Korean.How to Say Office in Korean
You can 직장 (jikjang) for “office” or “workplace” in Korean.Korean Jobs
Here is some information about work in Korea.How to Find a Job in Korea
If you want to get a Korean job, these may be useful places to help start your search:
If you enter a company in Korea, you may notice it is different than in your home country. There is a special language that company employees use to address each other. Here are some resources about that language and Korean work life:
For more information on how to introduce yourself and things about you in Korean, please refer to our article How to introduce yourself in Korean.
We hope you enjoyed this lesson. For a complete guide on how to learn Korean, check out our resource here: https://www.90daykorean.com/learn-korean/
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